Beer Diet: What We Learned

The “Beer Diet” – I’m the doctor that supervised Evo Terra as he spent every October for the last three years drinking beer and eating sausages – and while doing this lost weight, lowered his cholesterol, lowered his body fat, and lowered his C-reactive protein and blood homocysteine levels (measures of the body’s inflammatory response).

Here are the Five big lessons we have learned from this experiment:
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Pigs and GMO

pigs eating

Pigs that eat genetically modified foods have less inflammation than pigs that eat normal- the opposite of what the news reported

Pigs and GMO
So you read the headlines, or the news article and you see that pigs fed GMO had more stomach problems than pigs that were not fed GMO. Except that isn’t really what the article results show.

The results show that pigs have a lot of stomach problems- regardless of the stuff that is fed to them.
From Table 3 of their study:

Pigs who were fed non GM foods had more erosions, more pin point ulcers than pigs fed GM foods.
(1) Of all ulcers there were equal numbers in both GM fed and non GM fed pigs.
(2) In terms of inflammation – all types – there were 69 in the non GM fed group and 64 in the GM group.
(3) If you look at nil inflammation (meaning zip) – pigs who ate genetically modified foods had much less inflammation than pigs who ate “organic” food.
(4) If you add the “nil inflammation” the numbers are 73 with inflamed stomachs of pigs who ate non genetically modified foods and 72 pigs who ate genetically modified foods had inflamed stomachs.

As a surgeon, who does a lot of stomach surgery – I would say that this study shows really no difference between the two groups of pigs- but when it comes to the severe issues there appear to be a lot more severe issues among the pigs that ate non-genetically modified food than the pigs that ate genetically modified foods.

What does this whole thing prove:
(1) GM and non GM are no different
(2) Pigs have a lot of stomach problems – who knew
(3) Journalists don’t read papers and analyze them, they instead read abstracts where the comments may not equal the results

It is sad that the Journal of Organic Systems – which says it is peer reviewed, but its agenda is not science, its agenda is organic farming and systems. A fine agenda, but when you allow the abstract and conclusion to read the way they did – you simply decrease the value of your journal.

As for you journalists out there – try reading and analyzing the data before reporting it.

What is Really in Juice Concentrate

When you buy juice and it says it contains orange juice, or any other juice in it- you probably think of it this way:

When you think of concentrated Orange juice you probably think about something like this

But if you thought more about it you would realize that to make juice you really don’t want the peel of the orange- or the peel of most fruits because they are bitter and not so sweet.

But if you thought about it you realize they would reasonably get rid of the peel and they do

Then if you peel an orange you see underneath the peel there is some pulp and unless the juice has added this back in, most of the time you think is that this material will have to be removed, because if you taste this- it is also kind of bitter and chewy:

Under the peel of the orange is some bitter pulp and in most juices you don’t want to have this

So when you really think about orange juice, or any juice- you think of the meaty part of the fruit- the tasty stuff and when you think of that you think this must be the stuff they make the concentrate from:

The beautiful inside of an orange – this must be what they put into the concentrate.

But then you think again, and realize that they have to squeeze the juice out of that. So you have juice. But that it isn’t really concentrated so what they have to do is some method to make the juice concentrated. So you imagine it looks something like you would see in a frozen can of juice – and would look like that.

But that isn’t what the companies do. What they do is they take that concentrate and they break it down further and make it into a powder that they can easily add to the other powders and ingredients that they make then bottle and sell you as juice. What does that look like?

Sugar – its just sugar

What they do is simply extract the sugar, and this means what you are drinking is a product from some oranges, or grapes, or whatever juice they say. It is just another excuse to give you more sugar, so you can buy more juice.

So next time you want some juice- remember – it probably isn’t really anything more than flavoring, coloring, and sugar. You want juice – get the fruits or vegetables and do it yourself because otherwise what you are eating is just junk food, and you are just fooling yourself.

Mummies & Eskimos with Heart Disease: it isn’t Modern Diets that are the Problem: The People of St. Paul

The recent study that came out showing that ancient people had heart disease, including a group of Alaska Natives whose mummified remains revealed that the perfect paleolithic diet did not protect from heart disease. Funny thing, Alaska Natives have known this for years. While some may want to say our diet is the ultimate, we have known it is just our way to survive – to live.   St. Paul is a small community of several hundred in the Pribilloff Islands. A remnant of the ancient people of Alaska, with only minimal changes from our paleolithic era.

Most people would never know about these islands were it not for the TV series, Most Dangerous Catch.  It is these islands that the crab fisherman come to process some of their crab. Viewers of the show will recognize the name of the place.

St George Island from St. Paul

In the distance is St. George, the smaller of the two islands. St. Paul is 7 miles wide, 14 miles long. Formed from volcanic activity.

Lonely islands, in the middle of the Bering Sea – but home to some of the most ancient people on earth. St Paul is a three hour flight from Anchorage. Sometimes the weather is so fierce that people have been unable to leave the island for several days.

Like their ancestors, these Alaska natives get their food from fishing. Halibut, crab, salmon, char, and the occasional seal. The only thing that has been introduced into their diet has been the reindeer herd on the island – that would provide a bit of our dinner that night. While there is a single grocery store, products from the lower-48 are expensive and not often used.

The recent Lancet article stated:

 

The presence of atherosclerosis in  pre-modern human beings suggests that the disease is an inherent component of human ageing and not  characteristic of any specific diet or lifestyle.

alaska Aleut

The Aleuts, or Unangan, peoples inhabit the western most part of Alaska – purple. The two little spots above the t in Alutiiq is where St. Paul Island is-

In the article they had studied   mummified remains of Alaska Natives, my ancestors. The Aleuts  live on the  islands in the western part of Alaska.   These islands, formed from mostly volcanic formation, to this day are rich in marine life, with abundant fish, seal, whales, and occasional berries.

I was last there when invited to a celebration in St. Paul because of their new clinic. A beautiful facility, staffed by physicians out of Anchorage. But this facility is vital to the community.

St Paul Seals

The island is a natural breeding ground for seals, who migrate here yearly. The Russians forced Aleuts to inhabit the island to harvest the seals

The island was originally uninhabited until the Russians arrived. Used primarily as a hunting area for natives, then the Russians discovered the great seal population they forcibly moved hundreds of Aleuts here to harvest the fur.  Those families still remain.

Why, you might ask, should you think about Aleuts?  Why do food scientists think about them? These were/are one of the great hunter-gathering societies, eating a diet of fish, meat – even getting their vitamin C, not from citrus, but from marine life. Those relatives, my ancestors, had a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, did not eat processed grains – in fact, they rarely had any food but what would be the ideal paleo-rich, non-processed, occasional berry (in season – fresh and local) diet.

For the study in Lancet, it was made possible to see what my ancestors ate because  the climate in these parts allows mother nature to mummify the body, making the bodies available to study.

St Paul

Main Street in St. Paul. They have one bar, one post office, one grocery store, and one church

This group was use to physical activity, without animals to transport them they relied on the kayak for whaling, fishing, and transportation to visit one another on other islands.  With Russians reporting that some of these peoples would go hundreds of miles in Kayaks.

kayak

Restoring an ancient Kayaks. Much larger than the individual ones used for modern sport

Kayak

A better view of how large these ocean going vehicles were

It has been postulated that the Eskimo (the Aleut are the same group as the Eskimo) would have the lowest incidence of coronary artery disease because of their diet. The hunter-gathering society had a “reported” low incidence – although as with many population studies have shown, you often find it when you look for it. For a more in depth discussion about population studies and how we have missed them see here. The Pima Indians, of Arizona, are called “the most studied group” in the world. It was once assumed they had no heart disease, and thus began an intensive study as to why they didn’t have heart disease- but as more studies were performed, turns out the Pimas, like many societies, have heart disease. In fact more of it than western societies. It is the same with the Eskimo health, whether from Greenland or other areas, when critically examined, this society has the same rate of heart disease as others.

Modern Man:

Some have speculated that the incidence of coronary artery disease among Eskimos is because of their interaction with modern man. The introduction of grains into their diets, tobacco, and machinery with less exercise. Not only did the study in Lancet article show that cardiac disease was present in those paleo-people, it is in line with laboratory studies of Aleuts showing they have the same markers for cardiac disease as the rest of us.

Smoking:

Aleut home Alaska Native Center

This is a modern representation of homes of the Aleuts. This from The Alaska Native Heritage Center in Anchorage, Alaska. A worthwhile place

While they did not have tobacco, all ancient peoples used fire. The Native Alaskas of the Aleutians  had homes built partially underground, and used community fires with smoke going out of a hole in the roof, or used fires to heat water that would heat the homes. This might have lead to increased exposure that would accelerate heart disease, but the dispersion of smoke from this would be hundreds of times less than exposure from those who inhale tobacco.

Seal oil was used for lamps. Which, like olive oil, burns quite brightly.

Today they use electricity.  So the second-hand smoke from fires and lamps is no longer a factor. They still eat a diet primarily of fish.  Still, as we found from this little clinic for a town of 400 people, there is  heart disease. Several times a year a person is evacuated out of this town to the city of Anchorage for advanced cardiac care.

One of the  mummified remains of an Aleut lady showed severe artery disease to the extent that if we saw this today she would undergo vascular surgery. This in a woman who was in her late 40′s to early 50′s. She may very well have died of a stroke.

 

St. Paul island birds

The people still get eggs, but they prefer the fresh ones from the cliff. Higher in omega-3 fatty acids than the ones from the chicken farms. These islands have some of the most unique birds in the world.

In fact, in the recent study published on-line by Lancet, they discovered atherosclerosis was prevalent in all areas of the world, over a 4000 year time span, and several continents, with peoples having ancient diets from rich in saturated fat, to near vegetarian, to pure paleo.

Exercise:

Exercise you say? Turns out that in ancient cultures, without the benefit of cars, bikes, or probably even animals- physical activity was normal- and lean and mean were simply natural. Like a six-pack, probably every ancient Alaska Native  person had one– but in their coronary arteries were plaques, that would make any modern, beer belly, sedentary modern human proud.

Diet:

These ancient ones didn’t have trans-fats, they didn’t have soda, they didn’t have wheat, they didn’t have dairy, they didn’t have cheese, but they did have heart disease. And today, they stil do.

Heart Disease:

The study showed that heart disease was found throughout ancient civilization. It wasn’t the diet that prevented it. In fact, probably was genetic like most of us thought all along. Like their ancestors before, the Aleuts of St. Paul have the same disease, virtually the same diet. Their lifestyle is better now, with indoor heat, better insulation. They still live a physical life. But one thing they need- much like many – is some statin drug like Lipitor  which works much better than their ancient diet, or any diet you can think of .

Ask an Alaska Native if their diet protected them from disease: they will tell you, it didn’t. Food wasn’t meant for medicine, food was meant to nourish the body. A lesson the ancient people knew – one that many doctors are still learning.

REFERENCES:

Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations.Randall C Thompson, Adel H Allam, Guido P Lombardi, et.al. www.thelancet.com   Published online March 10, 2013

High prevalence of markers of coronary heart disease among Greenland Inuit. Jørgensen ME, Bjerregaard P, Kjaergaard JJ, Borch-Johnsen K.Atherosclerosis. 2008 Feb;196(2):772-8 PMID: 17306273

 

24 Hour Flu Does Not Exist: Its Food Poisoning

 

Food Poisoning: Don’t Get Mis-Diagnosed

dr terry simpson arizona lap band

In the kitchen and in the Operating Room

You wake up feeling like you are hung-over, muscles hurt, then you realize you need to run to the bathroom. You call in sick to work, and spend the day in bed – quietly hoping your intestines will calm down and while you don’t feel like eating – you just want to keep down some water for a bit. The next day you wake up feeling fine- maybe a touch weak, but ok.  It isn’t the flu, you were poisoned.

No virus, influenza or otherwise, lasts for only 24 hours.  When flu season comes, that miserable virus will last 2 to 3 weeks. What does last for that period of time is food born illness. So  before we go into that– be sure to get vaccinated against the flu!

 

Kitchen Safety and Avoiding Food Poisoning

Food poisoning (technically we doctors call it foodborne illness) happens when we eat or drink something that is contaminated with bacteria, parasites, or viruses, or with some chemical that causes illness.

FACT: Every year 48 million people in the United States become ill from food, 128,00 are hospitalized, and 3,000 people die from foodborne illnesses. 

With chicken we worry about salmonella.However, if you are cooking above 130°F, the salmonella bacteria are unable to grow, as are all other common bugs. Still, food safety is important. Wash hands after handling raw meat, and wash all surfaces and utensils after they come in contact with raw meat. It is more likely that the raw meat will contaminate those surfaces and that those surfaces will pass the bugs onto other foods than you becoming sick from the meat directly.

For beef, the FDA states that it is safe when kept at a temperature of 130°F for 112 minutes or 140°F for 12 minutes. The temperature of a rare steak is between 130°F and 139°F in the center. By cooking the steak for 45 minutes at 136°F in a sous vide water oven, you will keep well within the recommended limits. Some cook the steak longer—two to four hours—but I find that 45 minutes for a 1-inch-thick steak works well. The fast grilling of a steak or standard cooking will also kill those bacteria.

Cross-Contamination

avoid food poisoning

Proper handling of poultry – includes washing all surfaces and utensils

The biggest issue with bacteria and food safety is cross-contamination. This means the bugs from one food are passively transferred to another food, where they grow. For example, if you wash some raw chicken in the sink where there is a cutting knife, you can contaminate that knife with bacteria. If you clean the knife insufficiently to rid it of the bacteria and then use it to cut some cooked eggs, these eggs can become the perfect place for bacteria to grow like crazy (especially if the eggs sit at room temperature). If you eat the eggs, you can get sick from the chicken (so the chicken came first). The lesson here is that if you wash raw poultry in the sink, be sure to have that sink cleaned out well to avoid cross-contaminating other utensils or serving dishes. Anytime you handle any raw meat or eggs, treat everything they touch as if it just came out of the toilet.

Do not use the same cutting board for raw and cooked meats. If you own only one cutting board, be sure to wipe it down with a bleach solution after cutting raw meat on it.

If you use a knife or fork or any instrument on raw meat, wash that utensil carefully. Essentially, consider raw meat to be contaminated, along with anything it touches: you, your clothes, your cooking utensils, your cutting boards, and your knives. Remember, when people get sick from the bacteria from raw meat, it is typically because of cross-contamination from other foods, from food workers improper techniques.

Refrigerate all foods promptly. If food is at room temperature for more than two hours, it may not be safe to eat. The bacteria that cause food poisoning typically do not produce an odor or change the texture of the food. Think about this the next time someone invites you to a buffet.

Make certain that your refrigerator is kept at 40°F or cooler, and that there is plenty of room for air to circulate in the refrigerator. Keep the freezer at or below 0°F.

Wash your hands carefully. I use a special soap made primarily from alcohol, the same type of soap surgeons use before scrubbing in the operating room. You can purchase this from most stores; one brand is Purell. Always wash after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, produce, or raw eggs. Scrub and lather for at least for 20 seconds after handling any raw meat. An easy way to do that is to sing “Happy Birthday” to yourself twice while scrubbing your hands.

Wash all fruits and vegetables under running water before eating or cooking them. Use a vegetable brush to scrub melons and cucumbers, and then dry with a paper towel. Consider the vegetable brush contaminated, so sanitize it frequently.

It is better to throw out food than to be sick. Don’t be afraid to toss out any food that makes you suspicious.

How do “they” decide how much and how long to cook? Microbiologists have determined how much heat and time is needed to kill 90 percent of the bugs To kill 99 percent of the bugs you have to cook the food for twice as long (or increase the heat).

MYTH: You want to kill all those bugs!

Using a digital thermometer means never guessing

No, let’s not. First, it is probably impossible to do that. Second, the longer you cook something or the higher temperature you cook it, the more the heat will affect the flavor of the food. There are no guarantees that overcooking food will make it safe, or that under cooking food puts you in danger.

Because it is an average, the standards are much higher than commonly needed. Even if you were to kill 99.9999 % and someone’s thermometer was off, or the oven was not heating properly, then overcooking provides some safety but at the expense of flavor.

The entity responsible for this in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). As with most government bodies, it has a scientific advisory panel that makes recommendations. The advisory panel found that the FSIS figures for poultry were way too high. The FSIS recommends temperature and time enough to kill 99.99999 percent of the bacteria) but the panel recommended enough to kill 99.995 percent of the bacteria. At 122°F there are no bugs that are known to survive – on this planet.

“But on Chopped they reject under cooked food!”
I’m a huge fan of the Food Network. On the show Chopped you will see the judges reject food that they consider “under cooked” or “raw.” Are they crazy? Well, they might be (most chefs, like surgeons, get a bit nutty). But they sometimes are overdoing it when it comes to chicken or worrying about cross-contamination in a 20- to 30-minute contest. The funny thing is they will eat something that a chef has double-dipped. (The mouth has a far higher bacteria content, but if they would kiss it, they eat it!) The bottom line: over cooking foods ruins the flavor and texture. Pork can be pink, and chicken should not be cooked to an internal temperature of over 145 – and use a thermometer (guessing is never precise).

My favorite quote is from Chef Gordon Ramsay, who on his show “Hell’s Kitchen” will scream at the contestants when they under cook food (they usually under cook scallops or halibut on the stove top). He yells: “It’s raaaaaw!!!” Then tosses the food on the floor or in the trash.

It’s RAAAAW

REFERENCES:

(1) The loss from food borne illness in the United States is about 77 billion dollars a year.

J Food Prot 2012 Pub Med ID 22221364

(2) The time and temperature combinations for beef can be found from the Food Safety and Inspection Service guidelines. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/fr/95033f-a.htm The part of their Chart is here: Min Internal Temp F 6.5 log lethality 7.0 log lethality 130 F 112 min 121 min 135 F 36 min 37 min 140 F 12 min 12 min 145 F 4 min 4 min 150 F 67 seconds 72 seconds The 6.5 log lethality means you are killing 99.99997 percent of the bugs (also called 6.5D) . A 7D lethality means you are killing 99.9999999 per cent of the bugs. If you have highly contaminated poultry (37,500 bacteria per gram of raw meat) then 3.5 ounces of meat would have 5.4 million Salmonella. To drop 7D means you would reduce 10 million pathogens to one bug. It takes about 105 Salmonella per gram of food to cause illness, less Salmonella than that cause no clinical symptoms. Thus, with worst case scenario you could kill just 99.999 per cent of the bacteria and not have symptoms (a 5D reduction).

Min Internal Temp F 6.5 log lethality 7.0 log lethality
130 F 112 min 121 min
135 F 36 min 37 min
140 F 12 min 12 min
145 F 4 min 4 min
150 F 67 seconds 72 seconds

The bacteria E. coli strain 0157 can cause illness with as little as 10 bacteria per gram of food. Thus a 6.5 D would not be adequate but a 7D would. As you increase the temperature, it decreases the time – it is a logarithm scale, which is why the drop in time with an increase in temperature. In low temperature cooking (Sous Vide), medium rare beef is typically cooked at 136 degrees for 45 minutes to an hour. That, combined with the searing of the surface at 400 degrees (most bacteria would reside on the surface of the meat) in addition to seasoning the surface of the meat with salt,which also kills bacteria, provides a large margin of safety. Most bacteria do not live above 120 degrees, and as you increase the temperature you kill more of them. At 102 degrees most bacteria can no longer reproduce- which is the protective nature of human fevers.

Sous Vide – its quite safe

(3) There are many ways of becoming contaminated by food workers. Most food illness comes from food workers, not from cooking. Another reason to cook and eat at home.

J Food Prot 2009 Pub Med ID 19205488

(4) Hand washing guidelines can be found at the CDC website. The keys are to not wear rings, jewelry, watches when handling raw food. Soap and water are fine- keeping the water running or turning on the water with a paper towel works. After any food preparation, and as often as needed, to remove contaminated residue. Remember, before handling food to wash also- consider your hands unclean. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/cruiselines/handwashing_guidelines.htm

I like to hand wash by singing “Happy Birthday” twice – then I know I am done!

Parts of this post come from our new book coming out soon — (we hope) – called JUST EAT.