Stop Protesting and Start Cooking

Yes- someone is protesting Kraft because they use “artificial” colors in their Mac and Cheese. They then made up an entire post about how Kraft uses genetically modified wheat in their product.  While they generated a lot of buzz for this lets start with the obvious:

You’re feeding your kid processed food and protesting Kraft?  

Instead of protesting a food maker, why don’t you use that time to cook them a real meal?

In ten minutes you can have a spaghetti squash cooked in a microwave and ready to serve. We showed that in a video here. That has ten times the fiber of the pasta and one tenth the calories – and it tastes great.  Instead of their “cheese” you can grate some real Parmesan cheese on top, or you can heat up some other sauce you get from the store (there are some great healthy sauces out there). Now, in less time than making Kraft’s dinner you have made your own – it has a vegetable serving in it (something you don’t get with Kraft) – it tastes better, it is fresher, and it will cost you less.

Plus here is another advantage: you are showing your child that the kitchen you are in can be used for making real meals.  You are setting an example for them. JJ in the Kitchen

Over 200,000 signatures were gathered for this.  And Kraft met with them! Ok, the power of social media and all that. What an ego boost for their blogs (no, I won’t link to them because they are silly blogs that are quite anti-science). Here is their comment though, “We wanted to educate the American consumer and let them know what is in their food. We just picked an iconic food product to really get that message across.”

So protest away to Kraft, or anyone you wish- but if you would instead take the time to make real food for your kids you can save some of that energy and not have to worry about “chemicals.”

So here is my recommendation for all of you food bloggers out there protesting big industry because of how they process foods — get off your blog and show your kids how to cook – and not from a box.

And if you spent time worrying about what is in the box of Mac & Cheese – don’t. Just get in the kitchen and learn to cook. Your kids will love it, you will love it, and you will eat better – healthier, and live a much better life.

Get an apron, learn how to cook, it is the most empowering thing you can do for yourself.

In fact – one of my favorite chef’s said it best in an interview – well – here is the video of the interview:

Here is a video about how to do Spaghetti Squash

Mediterranean Diet: Heart Health – Not Just Yet

Mediterranean Diet Good For Your Heart?

Healthy Mediterranean Diet

This week most news outlets are touting the recent article in The New England Journal of Medicine about the Mediterranean Diet, and how it cut cardiovascular disease. But here is the rest of that story:

There was no significant reduction in heart attacks, there was no reduction in death from heart disease, but there was a small reduction in death from stroke. When you combine the strokes into a category of cardiovascular disease you have the difference the article noted.  To be clear, the study did not say a reduction in stroke, or a reduction in disability from stroke but just death from stroke.

There is a call for studies of diets to see how it affects heart disease, or cancer, or other diseases. But here is one that really didn’t show anything, and yet some are saying- hey, we need more.

What was not properly accounted for in the study was smoking, people who were taking statins, people who were taking blood pressure medicine,  and there was more obesity in the control group. There was no weight loss in the Mediterranean diet group.

Even the New York Times didn’t get this, their article said, “About 30 percent of heart attacks, strokes and deaths from heart disease can be prevented in people at high risk if they switch to a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil, nuts, beans, fish, fruits and vegetables, and even drink wine with meals, a large and rigorous new study has found.”

In another part of the NYT article they said, ” Disease experts said the study was a triumph because it showed that a diet was powerful in reducing heart disease risk, and it did so using the most rigorous methods. “ 

The study did not show that the diet was “powerful” in reducing heart disease risk, and the most rigorous method used was statistical jockeying to add stroke deaths to heart issues to put it all under one statistical umbrella.

Plus, one group were required to drink a liter of olive oil a week (thats a lot of oil).

What was also missing from the study was any laboratory data, nothing showing a change in blood lipid chemistry (which may not matter). There was nothing in the data that showed changes in plaque formation. There was nothing in the data that showed inflammatory markers were lower.

Bottom line: you have a study that makes a lot of reaches, conclusions, and promises, but the facts are simply not there to support it. It also shows that the era of science journalism is gone.

Eating Healthier is better than not – in fact: Just Cook! :

Olive oil- buy local (US olive oils).

There are plenty of ways a person can eat healthy. And once someone begins to pay attention, and eat healthier they tend to think that their diet is the best of any. Diets become a religion for some people- proselytizing with the evangelical fervor of a Revival preacher.

What the report in the New England Medical Journal showed was this: eating healthier is a bit better than not.

A lot to love in this diet – what I like most, is it gets people into the kitchen, and cooking. There is nothing wrong with a diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish (and shellfish) with less emphasis on cattle raised on corn (grass fed is ok), and decreased portions, is probably best. Oh- and don’t forget the red wine.

 One of the New York Times columnists got it partially right. Mark Bittman, whose contributions to the food section of the NY Times are known for advocating cooking, healthy foods, and less red meat.  His column pointed out the flaws, as Bittman called physicians who were critical of the article. Bittman’s colum about this can be found by clicking here.  Bittman does credit Ornish with a diet showing a reversal of heart disease – which, sadly is simply not true (our review of Dr. Ornish here). Essentially, Ornish’s cardiac imaging was flawed – and his studies have not been reproduced.

What is the Mediterranean Diet – a Diet Plan

Breakfast: Greek yogurt. Fruit, fresh and whole. Granola made from fresh nuts, whole grains, and sweetened with blueberries. Fresh, whole wheat toast, or sourdough pancakes. Cucumbers with onions dipped in balsamic vinegar with some olive oil.  Tea or coffee

Mid-Morning snack: fresh fruits, nuts, or – dried fruits (that you have made).

Lunch: Fresh fish grilled or fried in olive oil. A hearty lentil soup. Fresh fish with pita bread.

Mid-afternoon snack: 1 banana or 1 apple, or some fresh fruit. A handful of nuts

Dinner: Chicken – baked or roasted, in a warm hummus salad. Fresh pita bread. Green beans blanched, then dressed with olive oil and mustard. Or pasta with a true Marinara sauce. One the island of Sardinia, I ordered pasta with Marinara sauce – besides tomatoes, in the sauce were fresh mussels, lobster, mackerel, and tuna — and it hit me – this is what marinara means- from the sea.

2 glasses of red wine.

Dessert: Poached pear with yogurt, or baked apple with nuts, fresh fruit salad

 Mediterranean Diet: What it consists of 

Vegetables and Fruits: the base of the Mediterranean pyramid. The bulk of food in this comes from these ingredients. Fruits form the basis of most deserts. This means fruits or vegetables with every meal- and for every snack, up to ten servings a day. These are not processed juices, these are something you can identify out of the garden. If you have dried fruits, that is acceptable, and prefer that you do them.

Grains: Whole grains, not processed wheats: quinoa, wheat berry, and sesame seeds. Perhaps my favorite of this is hummus, a great snack, all vegetable, that provides all the essential amino acids. It was this snack that allowed migration across the world.

Dairy: Greek yogurt, cottage cheese, are all used in this diet.

Fats: Primary source is olive oil in this diet, also grape seed oil

Pasta: A basis of high-carbohydrate, high fuel for people from the Mediterranean to China.

 

 

 

REFERENCE:
Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. Estruch R,et. al. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 25.PMID: 23432189

 

The NYT article can be found here.

24 Hour Flu Does Not Exist: Its Food Poisoning

 

Food Poisoning: Don’t Get Mis-Diagnosed

dr terry simpson arizona lap band

In the kitchen and in the Operating Room

You wake up feeling like you are hung-over, muscles hurt, then you realize you need to run to the bathroom. You call in sick to work, and spend the day in bed – quietly hoping your intestines will calm down and while you don’t feel like eating – you just want to keep down some water for a bit. The next day you wake up feeling fine- maybe a touch weak, but ok.  It isn’t the flu, you were poisoned.

No virus, influenza or otherwise, lasts for only 24 hours.  When flu season comes, that miserable virus will last 2 to 3 weeks. What does last for that period of time is food born illness. So  before we go into that– be sure to get vaccinated against the flu!

 

Kitchen Safety and Avoiding Food Poisoning

Food poisoning (technically we doctors call it foodborne illness) happens when we eat or drink something that is contaminated with bacteria, parasites, or viruses, or with some chemical that causes illness.

FACT: Every year 48 million people in the United States become ill from food, 128,00 are hospitalized, and 3,000 people die from foodborne illnesses. 

With chicken we worry about salmonella.However, if you are cooking above 130°F, the salmonella bacteria are unable to grow, as are all other common bugs. Still, food safety is important. Wash hands after handling raw meat, and wash all surfaces and utensils after they come in contact with raw meat. It is more likely that the raw meat will contaminate those surfaces and that those surfaces will pass the bugs onto other foods than you becoming sick from the meat directly.

For beef, the FDA states that it is safe when kept at a temperature of 130°F for 112 minutes or 140°F for 12 minutes. The temperature of a rare steak is between 130°F and 139°F in the center. By cooking the steak for 45 minutes at 136°F in a sous vide water oven, you will keep well within the recommended limits. Some cook the steak longer—two to four hours—but I find that 45 minutes for a 1-inch-thick steak works well. The fast grilling of a steak or standard cooking will also kill those bacteria.

Cross-Contamination

avoid food poisoning

Proper handling of poultry – includes washing all surfaces and utensils

The biggest issue with bacteria and food safety is cross-contamination. This means the bugs from one food are passively transferred to another food, where they grow. For example, if you wash some raw chicken in the sink where there is a cutting knife, you can contaminate that knife with bacteria. If you clean the knife insufficiently to rid it of the bacteria and then use it to cut some cooked eggs, these eggs can become the perfect place for bacteria to grow like crazy (especially if the eggs sit at room temperature). If you eat the eggs, you can get sick from the chicken (so the chicken came first). The lesson here is that if you wash raw poultry in the sink, be sure to have that sink cleaned out well to avoid cross-contaminating other utensils or serving dishes. Anytime you handle any raw meat or eggs, treat everything they touch as if it just came out of the toilet.

Do not use the same cutting board for raw and cooked meats. If you own only one cutting board, be sure to wipe it down with a bleach solution after cutting raw meat on it.

If you use a knife or fork or any instrument on raw meat, wash that utensil carefully. Essentially, consider raw meat to be contaminated, along with anything it touches: you, your clothes, your cooking utensils, your cutting boards, and your knives. Remember, when people get sick from the bacteria from raw meat, it is typically because of cross-contamination from other foods, from food workers improper techniques.

Refrigerate all foods promptly. If food is at room temperature for more than two hours, it may not be safe to eat. The bacteria that cause food poisoning typically do not produce an odor or change the texture of the food. Think about this the next time someone invites you to a buffet.

Make certain that your refrigerator is kept at 40°F or cooler, and that there is plenty of room for air to circulate in the refrigerator. Keep the freezer at or below 0°F.

Wash your hands carefully. I use a special soap made primarily from alcohol, the same type of soap surgeons use before scrubbing in the operating room. You can purchase this from most stores; one brand is Purell. Always wash after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, produce, or raw eggs. Scrub and lather for at least for 20 seconds after handling any raw meat. An easy way to do that is to sing “Happy Birthday” to yourself twice while scrubbing your hands.

Wash all fruits and vegetables under running water before eating or cooking them. Use a vegetable brush to scrub melons and cucumbers, and then dry with a paper towel. Consider the vegetable brush contaminated, so sanitize it frequently.

It is better to throw out food than to be sick. Don’t be afraid to toss out any food that makes you suspicious.

How do “they” decide how much and how long to cook? Microbiologists have determined how much heat and time is needed to kill 90 percent of the bugs To kill 99 percent of the bugs you have to cook the food for twice as long (or increase the heat).

MYTH: You want to kill all those bugs!

Using a digital thermometer means never guessing

No, let’s not. First, it is probably impossible to do that. Second, the longer you cook something or the higher temperature you cook it, the more the heat will affect the flavor of the food. There are no guarantees that overcooking food will make it safe, or that under cooking food puts you in danger.

Because it is an average, the standards are much higher than commonly needed. Even if you were to kill 99.9999 % and someone’s thermometer was off, or the oven was not heating properly, then overcooking provides some safety but at the expense of flavor.

The entity responsible for this in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). As with most government bodies, it has a scientific advisory panel that makes recommendations. The advisory panel found that the FSIS figures for poultry were way too high. The FSIS recommends temperature and time enough to kill 99.99999 percent of the bacteria) but the panel recommended enough to kill 99.995 percent of the bacteria. At 122°F there are no bugs that are known to survive – on this planet.

“But on Chopped they reject under cooked food!”
I’m a huge fan of the Food Network. On the show Chopped you will see the judges reject food that they consider “under cooked” or “raw.” Are they crazy? Well, they might be (most chefs, like surgeons, get a bit nutty). But they sometimes are overdoing it when it comes to chicken or worrying about cross-contamination in a 20- to 30-minute contest. The funny thing is they will eat something that a chef has double-dipped. (The mouth has a far higher bacteria content, but if they would kiss it, they eat it!) The bottom line: over cooking foods ruins the flavor and texture. Pork can be pink, and chicken should not be cooked to an internal temperature of over 145 – and use a thermometer (guessing is never precise).

My favorite quote is from Chef Gordon Ramsay, who on his show “Hell’s Kitchen” will scream at the contestants when they under cook food (they usually under cook scallops or halibut on the stove top). He yells: “It’s raaaaaw!!!” Then tosses the food on the floor or in the trash.

It’s RAAAAW

REFERENCES:

(1) The loss from food borne illness in the United States is about 77 billion dollars a year.

J Food Prot 2012 Pub Med ID 22221364

(2) The time and temperature combinations for beef can be found from the Food Safety and Inspection Service guidelines. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/fr/95033f-a.htm The part of their Chart is here: Min Internal Temp F 6.5 log lethality 7.0 log lethality 130 F 112 min 121 min 135 F 36 min 37 min 140 F 12 min 12 min 145 F 4 min 4 min 150 F 67 seconds 72 seconds The 6.5 log lethality means you are killing 99.99997 percent of the bugs (also called 6.5D) . A 7D lethality means you are killing 99.9999999 per cent of the bugs. If you have highly contaminated poultry (37,500 bacteria per gram of raw meat) then 3.5 ounces of meat would have 5.4 million Salmonella. To drop 7D means you would reduce 10 million pathogens to one bug. It takes about 105 Salmonella per gram of food to cause illness, less Salmonella than that cause no clinical symptoms. Thus, with worst case scenario you could kill just 99.999 per cent of the bacteria and not have symptoms (a 5D reduction).

Min Internal Temp F 6.5 log lethality 7.0 log lethality
130 F 112 min 121 min
135 F 36 min 37 min
140 F 12 min 12 min
145 F 4 min 4 min
150 F 67 seconds 72 seconds

The bacteria E. coli strain 0157 can cause illness with as little as 10 bacteria per gram of food. Thus a 6.5 D would not be adequate but a 7D would. As you increase the temperature, it decreases the time – it is a logarithm scale, which is why the drop in time with an increase in temperature. In low temperature cooking (Sous Vide), medium rare beef is typically cooked at 136 degrees for 45 minutes to an hour. That, combined with the searing of the surface at 400 degrees (most bacteria would reside on the surface of the meat) in addition to seasoning the surface of the meat with salt,which also kills bacteria, provides a large margin of safety. Most bacteria do not live above 120 degrees, and as you increase the temperature you kill more of them. At 102 degrees most bacteria can no longer reproduce- which is the protective nature of human fevers.

Sous Vide – its quite safe

(3) There are many ways of becoming contaminated by food workers. Most food illness comes from food workers, not from cooking. Another reason to cook and eat at home.

J Food Prot 2009 Pub Med ID 19205488

(4) Hand washing guidelines can be found at the CDC website. The keys are to not wear rings, jewelry, watches when handling raw food. Soap and water are fine- keeping the water running or turning on the water with a paper towel works. After any food preparation, and as often as needed, to remove contaminated residue. Remember, before handling food to wash also- consider your hands unclean. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/cruiselines/handwashing_guidelines.htm

I like to hand wash by singing “Happy Birthday” twice – then I know I am done!

Parts of this post come from our new book coming out soon — (we hope) – called JUST EAT.

 

 

MSG: Does Chinese Restaurant Syndrome Exist?

Mono-sodium-glutamate (MSG) – the cause of “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.”  It turns out  this syndrome is a myth.

HISTORY OF THE MYTH:
The syndrome was first reported in a letter to The New England Journal of Medicine in April of 1968. A physician wrote that he developed a syndrome which he thought might be associated with salt or MSG, and asked the medical community to respond to this syndrome. He described the symptoms as “ numbness at the back of the neck, gradually radiating to both arms and the back, general weakness and palpitation.” He said several of his friends had it also. He speculated that it might be the cooking wine, or the soy sauce- although the restaurant he went to used the same brand of soy sauce he used. He also noted his friends suggested it might be the seasoning of MSG used by the restaurant. (1)  The next month ten letters responded – one didn’t think it was MSG, one noted it didn’t happen in all Chinese restaurants – and might be placebo, and another reported a patient developing a stroke after eating the food. The media picked up the new disease “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome” and it became a food-type allergy. Ten months later the journal Science reported that Monosodium L-glutamate “is the cause of the Chinese restaurant syndrome and can precipitate headaches.” (2)  The report in Science, was written by one of the people who wrote the letter back to NEJM that May, Dr. Schaumburg. In fact, a later one of his letters was initially done in great humor, “ With the enthusiastic co-operation of the Shanghai Cafe one of us ate Chinese food for breakfast, lunch and dinner until the search had been narrowed to either hot and sour soup or wonton soup, both of which produced the reaction. A rough filtrate of wonton soup also produced the reaction. Upon sampling of the individual ingredients, the dagger of suspicion pointed at monosodium glutamate. Further experiments confirmed this suspicion. The experiments were performed with the use of approved blind and double-blind technics on three volunteers. If the suspicion that irresponsible human experimentation was done has crossed your mind, be at ease. The days of Walter Reed are not past.” (3)

MSG

My mother had this in her kitchen. Pure MSG – it made food taste a lot better

The MSG Follow Up Research
Forty years after that original letter, and in spite of years of trials, and clinical trials, it was finally put to rest that “so-called ‘Chinese restaurant syndrome’ and in eliciting asthmatic bronchospasm, urticaria, angio-oedema, and rhinitis. Despite concerns raised by early reports, decades of research have failed to demonstrate a clear and consistent relationship between MSG ingestion and the development of these conditions.” (4)

In spite of good clinical data putting this myth to rest, there will be plenty of people whose confirmation bias tells them they cannot eat in Chinese Restaurants, and will blame MSG, all the while not realizing that without MSG their bodies would cease to function, and that there is more MSG in the Italian food they prefer, than the Chinese food they shun. In test after test, MSG was not any worse than the placebo given in random studies.

In 2011 the Food and Drug Administration’s committee on GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substances stated this: “  There is no evidence in the available information on L-glutamic acid, L-glutamic acid hydrochloride, monosodium L-glutamate, monoammonium L-glutamate, and monopotassium L-glutamate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspects, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practices. However, it is not possible to determine, without additional data, whether a significant increase in consumption would constitute a dietary hazard.”  Much like salt, too much isn’t a good thing. (5)

Why MSG is so Important to you
Proteins are made up of molecules of amino acids – some of those amino acids our body can manufacture (they are called non-essential because we do not need to get them from our diet) and some amino acids we must obtain from our diet (called essential amino acids). Glutamic acid, and its form MSG, is a non-essential amino acid – meaning, our body produces glutamate and uses it to build the proteins we need. Without MSG you would be unable to build proteins, run the metabolism your body needs– without this amino acid you would not exist.While glutamic acid  is present in every food that contains protein, umami can only be tasted when it is separated from the protein – and functions as an individual amino acid.

MSG – It is one of the tastes you perceive
Before MSG was known for “Chinese Restaurant syndrome” it was used for the flavor it produced, to enhance food.  MSG  produces a  distinct savory flavor that is called Umami. MSG is a common additive in China- while visiting you would see it used almost as we would use salt here. In the United States MSG was sold under the name “Accent.”

China Lamb

In every market in China, such as here in Xi’an, one of the common flavors added to foods is MSG

We have discovered that humans have taste buds for  Glutamic acid  (MSG).  That flavor, umami, or savory (meat-like)  stimulates specific receptors located in taste buds, and is now recognized as one of the five basic tastes in addition to sweet, salty, sour, and bitter.  MSG is found in many foods, especially in parmesan cheese, tomatoes, soy sauce.  One would think if MSG was a real problem there would be an “Italian Restaurant Syndrome.”

There is no one region of the tongue that tastes sour, salt, bitter, sweet, or umami.  You may have seen “tongue” maps that show this, it turns out that the taste buds are distributed throughout the tongue. The entire tongue, has taste buds throughout – as well as the intestine (but that is for another blog).

Balance of flavor
If you ever eat something that is too salty, you want to balance it with sweetness – why we love dessert. But umami, that savory taste is why we love the balance in Italian cooking. We add Romano cheese to noodles to enhance the “flavor” – romano is filled with umami. America is in love with ketchup, and tomatoes provide that unique umami flavor. In Japan, instead of adding Romano or Parmesan to their noodles, they are judged by dashi – a broth that is made with seaweed (kombu) that has lots of MSG (and where some of the original MSG was derived from).

While in China, our favorite places to eat were on the streets – and beside almost every wok was a bowl of MSG – used to liberally season the foods, much like we use salt here. Street food in China is among the best food you can get. Some have even suggested that the balance of flavor that umami provides is one reason the Chinese are not subject to obesity (more about that later).

In Australia and the United Kingdom Vegemite and Marmite are all MSG or glutamate based – and all an essential part of that culture.

We are born to appreciate that flavor- human breast milk has almost 3o times higher glutamate than cow’s milk.

In my home state of Alaska, we prefer oysters, clams, and crabs when harvested in February through March – and it turns out they have their highest level of glutamates then. One would think that the Bering Sea would be better to harvest in the tranquil months of summer, but in August the lowest levels of glutamate are then, and Natives will tell you there just isn’t the flavor of the crab that you would like.

Whale Tale

August is great in Alaska to see whales, but not great for getting oysters, clams, or crab – the MSG levels are too low and they have less flavor

If you have an imbalance in flavor, then you compensate. Umami, it has been suggested, would provide a better balance if used more in foods. In other words, the emphasis on fat, sweet, and salty has led to some of the obesity, had there been more emphasis on umami, less food would be consumed, because there would be more of a balance. (6)

MSG and Obesity:

Apparently this “non essential” amino acid is now being blamed for obesity and short stature.  As you can see by reference (6) MSG can be used to help regulate appetite. Then came a paper in 2011 (7) claiming to show a correlation between MSG and obesity.  Sadly- this was one of the most poorly written papers, and was taken apart for multiple flaws in (7). To quote them: ”

Finally, even though observational studies often provide useful information for hypothesis formulation, given the significant questions and concerns raised in this study, it is premature to even generate a plausible hypothesis on MSG intake and obesity.

The current epidemic of obesity is worldwide, including in Asia. Because MSG has been extensively used as a flavoring agent in Asia, it could also potentially play an important role of enhancing palatability and acceptability of calorie-reduced diets. Until further confirmatory information becomes available, extreme caution needs to be exercised not to raise undue public safety concerns regarding MSG consumption.”

:

(1) Chinese-Restaurant Syndrome. Kwok, RHM. N Engl J Med 1968; 278:796April 4, 1968 (Letter to the editor)

(2) Monosodium L-glutamate: its pharmacology and role in the Chinese restaurant syndrome. Schaumburg HH, Byck R, Gerstl R, Mashman JH. Science. 1969 Feb 21;163(3869):826-8.PMID: 5764480

(3) Sin Cib Syn: Accent on Glutamate. Schaumburg HH, Byck R, N Engl J Med 1968; 279:105-106July 11, 1968 (Letter to the editor)

(4) Monosodium glutamate ‘allergy’: menace or myth?Williams AN, Woessner KM.Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 May;39(5):640-6. PMID: 19389112

(5) From the US Food and Drug Administration GRAS database.

(6) Umami flavour as a means of regulating food intake and improving nutrition and health. Mouritsen OG.  Health. 2012 Jan;21(1):56-75. PMID: 22544776

(7)↵ He K, Du S, Xun P, Sharma S, Wang H, Zhai F, Popkin B. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:1328–36.

(8)A lack of epidemiologic evidence to link consumption of monosodium L-glutamate and obesity in China.vBursey RG, Watson L, Smriga M.Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):958-60; author reply 960-1. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.020727.